skrub.fuzzy_join#

skrub.fuzzy_join(left, right, left_on=None, right_on=None, on=None, suffix='', max_dist=inf, ref_dist='random_pairs', string_encoder=Pipeline(steps=[('functiontransformer', FunctionTransformer(func=<function _as_str>)), ('hashingvectorizer', HashingVectorizer(analyzer='char_wb', ngram_range=(2, 4))), ('tfidftransformer', TfidfTransformer())]), add_match_info=False, drop_unmatched=False)[source]#

Fuzzy (approximate) join.

Rows in the left table are joined to their closest match from the right table. The resulting table has the same rows (in the same order) as the left table, unless drop_unmatched is True, in which case rows that are too far from their closest match will not appear in the result. Each row from the left table appears at most once in the result; if there are several equally good matching rows in the right table one of them will be used; which one is unspecified.

To identify the best match for each row, values from the matching columns (left_key and right_key) are vectorized, i.e. represented by vectors of continuous values. Then, the Euclidean distances between these vectors are computed to find, for each left table row, its nearest neighbor within the right table.

Optionally, a maximum distance threshold, max_dist, can be set. Matches between vectors that are separated by a distance (strictly) greater than max_dist will be rejected. We will consider that left table rows that are farther than max_dist from their nearest neighbor do not have a matching row in the right table, and the output will contain nulls for the entries that would normally have come from the right table (as in a traditional left join).

To make it easier to set a max_dist threshold, the distances are rescaled by dividing them by a reference distance, which can be chosen with ref_dist. The default is 'random_pairs'. The possible choices are:

‘random_pairs’

Pairs of rows are sampled randomly from the right table and their distance is computed. The reference distance is the first quartile of those distances.

‘second_neighbor’

The reference distance is the distance to the second nearest neighbor in the right table.

‘self_join_neighbor’

Once the match candidate (i.e. the nearest neigbor from the right table) has been found, we find its nearest neighbor in the right table (excluding itself). The reference distance is the distance that separates those 2 right rows.

‘no_rescaling’

The reference distance is 1.0, i.e. no rescaling of the distances is applied.

Parameters:
leftDataFrame

Left operand of the join.

rightDataFrame

Right operand of the join.

left_onstr or list of str, default=None

The column names in the left table on which the join will be performed. Can be a string if joining on a single column. If None, right_on must also be None and on must be provided.

right_onstr or list of str, default=None

The column names in the right table on which the join will be performed. Can be a string if joining on a single column. If None, left_on must also be None and on must be provided.

onstr or list of str, default=None

The column names to use for both left_on and right_on when they are the same. Provide either on or both left_on and right_on.

suffixstr, default=””

Suffix to append to the right table’s column names. You can use it to avoid duplicate column names in the join.

max_distfloat, default=np.inf

Maximum acceptable (rescaled) distance between a row in the left table and its nearest neighbor in the right table. Rows that are farther apart are not considered to match. By default, the distance is rescaled so that a value between 0 and 1 is typically a good choice, although rescaled distances can be greater than 1 for some choices of ref_dist. None, "inf", float("inf") or numpy.inf mean that no matches are rejected.

ref_distreference distance for rescaling, default = ‘random_pairs’

Options are {“random_pairs”, “second_neighbor”, “self_join_neighbor”, “no_rescaling”}. See above for a description of each option. To facilitate the choice of max_dist, distances between rows in left table and their nearest neighbor in right table will be rescaled by this reference distance.

string_encoderscikit-learn transformer used to vectorize text columns

By default a HashingVectorizer combined with a TfidfTransformer is used. Here we use raw TF-IDF features rather than transforming them for example with GapEncoder or MinHashEncoder because it is faster, these features are only used to find nearest neighbors and not used by downstream estimators, and distances between TF-IDF vectors have a somewhat simpler interpretation.

add_match_infobool, default=False

Insert columns whose names start with skrub_Joiner containing the distance, rescaled distance and whether the rescaled distance is above the threshold. Those values can be helpful for an estimator that uses the joined features, or to inspect the result of the join and set a max_dist threshold.

drop_unmatchedbool, default=False

Remove rows for which a match was not found in the right table (i.e. for which the nearest neighbor is further than max_dist).

Returns:
DataFrame

The joined tables.

See also

Joiner

Same as fuzzy_join but as a scikit-learn transformer.

Examples

>>> import pandas as pd
>>> from skrub import fuzzy_join
>>> left_table = pd.DataFrame({"Country": ["France", "Italia", "Georgia"]})
>>> right_table = pd.DataFrame( {"Country": ["Germany", "France", "Italy"],
...                            "Capital": ["Berlin", "Paris", "Rome"]} )
>>> left_table
  Country
0  France
1  Italia
2  Georgia
>>> right_table
   Country Capital
0  Germany  Berlin
1   France   Paris
2    Italy    Rome
>>> fuzzy_join(
...     left_table,
...     right_table,
...     on="Country",
...     suffix="_right",
...     max_dist=0.8,
...     add_match_info=False,
... )
  Country    Country_right    Capital_right
0  France           France            Paris
1  Italia            Italy             Rome
2   Georgia              NaN              NaN
>>> fuzzy_join(
...     left_table,
...     right_table,
...     on="Country",
...     suffix="_right",
...     drop_unmatched=True,
...     max_dist=0.8,
...     add_match_info=False,
... )
  Country    Country_right    Capital_right
0  France           France            Paris
1  Italia            Italy             Rome
>>> fuzzy_join(
...     left_table,
...     right_table,
...     on="Country",
...     suffix="_right",
...     max_dist=float("inf"),
...     add_match_info=False,
... )
  Country    Country_right    Capital_right
0  France           France            Paris
1  Italia           Italy             Rome
2  Georgia          Germany           Berlin

Examples using skrub.fuzzy_join#

Fuzzy joining dirty tables with the Joiner

Fuzzy joining dirty tables with the Joiner

Spatial join for flight data: Joining across multiple columns

Spatial join for flight data: Joining across multiple columns

Interpolation join: infer missing rows when joining two tables

Interpolation join: infer missing rows when joining two tables